For hibernating species, weight gain is important as it provides nourishment during winter dormancy. Injuries caused by bears are rare, but are widely reported. , Bears, like other animals, may symbolize nations.  The smallest species is the sun bear, which ranges 25–65 kg (55–145 lb) in weight and 100–140 cm (40–55 in) in length.  For example, Asiatic black bears in Taiwan consume large numbers of acorns when these are most common, and switch to ungulates at other times of the year. Polar bears appear to have secondarily re-evolved carnassial-like cheek teeth, as their diets have switched back towards carnivory. Small burrowing mammals like rodents may be dug out and eaten. The teeth start the breakdown process of the food the bear eats. The poaching and international trade of these most threatened populations are prohibited, but still ongoing. graphic credit:(Clemens 1980; Stevens & Hume 1995), Your email address will not be published. Washington’s Wildlife Management Needs a New Focus: You Can Help! It is likely ancestral to all bears within Ursinae, perhaps aside from the sloth bear. Based on genetic and morphological data, the Ailuropodinae (pandas) were the first to diverge from other living bears about 19 Mya, although no fossils of this group have been found before about 5 Mya. Staring is an aggressive act and the facial markings of spectacled bears and giant pandas may help draw attention to the eyes during agonistic encounters. , Bears produce a number of vocal and non-vocal sounds. Bears' closest living relatives are the pinnipeds, canids, and musteloids. They primarily eat the highly digestible blubber. Bears have thus been thought to predict the future and shaman were believed to have been capable of transforming into bears. , The most widespread species is the brown bear, which occurs from Western Europe eastwards through Asia to the western areas of North America. The cheek teeth do not always wear away evenly resulting in the formation of hooks and points.  However, Ringe notes that while this etymology is semantically plausible, a word meaning "brown" of this form cannot be found in Proto-Indo-European. Welcome to the Wildwood Tracking website! The English word "bear" comes from Old English bera and belongs to a family of names for the bear in Germanic languages, such as Swedish björn, also used as a first name. Give a pig a treat (like the animal cracker in the mouth of the little pig to the right) and they'll do almost anything.  By contrast, polar bears have few parasites; many parasitic species need a secondary, usually terrestrial, host, and the polar bear's life style is such that few alternative hosts exist in their environment. 4 . Their front paws are flexible enough to grasp fruit and leaves. The dental formula is: I=3/3, C=1/1, P=3/3,M=1/2 total teeth =42 ", 10.2192/1537-6176(2006)17[95:TROABB]2.0.CO;2, "Predatory behavior of grizzly bears feeding on elk calves in Yellowstone National Park, 1986–1988", "Assessment and Update Status Report on the Grizzly Bear (, "Humming in bears: a peculiar sustained mammalian vocalization", 10.1644/1545-1410(2001)647<0001:ua>2.0.co;2, "Mating Strategies in Relation to Sexually Selected Infanticide in a Non-Social Carnivore: The Brown Bear", "The dilemma of female mate selection in the brown bear, a species with sexually selected infanticide", "Intraspecific predation in Scandinavian brown bears older than cubs-of-the-year", "Diseases and mortality in free-ranging brown bear (, "Denning ecology of brown bears and Asiatic black bears in the Russian Far East", "Studies on endoparasites of the black bear (, "Brown Bear – Threats Grizzlies: Found in 2% of their former range", "Keyword search: "Ursidae", Exact phrase, The entire database", 10.2192/1537-6176(2004)015<0181:PPOLCI>2.0.CO;2, 10.2192/1537-6176(2006)17[8:ABCAR]2.0.CO;2, 10.2192/1537-6176(2005)016[0130:HBCIEK]2.0.CO;2, "Polar Bear–Human Interactions in Canadian National Parks, 1986–2000", "Maulings by Bears: What's Behind the Recent Attacks? The primary difference is that bears have an elongated digestive tract; an adaptation that allows bears more efficient digestion of vegetation than other carnivores (Herrero 1985). , Laws have been passed in many areas of the world to protect bears from habitat destruction.  In many Native American cultures, the bear is a symbol of rebirth because of its hibernation and re-emergence. The number and arrangement of teeth in each half of the upper and lower jaws is constant and identical. Many people have seen bear scat; whether it is in pictures, at a zoo or in the wild, it is usually very apparent what the bear had been eating. Brown bear skull (Dental formula: I3/3, C1/1, PM2-4/2-4, M2/3 = 34 - 42). Ailuropodinae Trade in bear products is prohibited under CITES, but bear bile has been detected in shampoos, wine and herbal medicines sold in Canada, the United States and Australia.  Below is a cladogram of the subfamilies of bears after McLellan and Reiner (1992) and Qiu et al.  European genera morphologically very similar to Allocyon, and to the much younger American Kolponomos (about 18 Mya), are known from the Oligocene, including Amphicticeps and Amphicynodon. , The bear family includes the most massive extant terrestrial members of the order Carnivora. Meat takes about 13 hours while clover takes about 7 hours (Pritchard and Robbins, 1990).  They are susceptible to infectious canine hepatitis (CAV-1), with free-living black bears dying rapidly of encephalitis and hepatitis. Bear Family Dentistry is the premier dental care in Central Louisiana. G-Force teeth is an all-natural dental health formula, designed to support healthier teeth and gums. This means that all of the species listed have that particular dental formula. The brown bear can live an average of 25 years. Piglets are born with "needle … This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Bears are a group of large mammals found in all over the world in many different habitats.They form the family Ursidae, in the suborder Caniformia of the order Carnivora.There are 8 living bear species.. Family Ursidae: Bears . Polar bears originated from brown bears (Ursus arctos, also called grizzly bear), but the exact timing of divergence is unclear primarily due to the lack of fossils. Port Townsend, WA 98368. Dental Anatomy of Pigs. Bears however have a single type of melanin and the hairs have a single color throughout their length, apart from the tip which is sometimes a different shade. Welcome to OUR family! Western Wildlife Outreach Polar Bear Teeth – Video Bears reach sexual maturity shortly after they disperse; at around 3–6 years depending on the species. They use smell for signalling to each other (either to warn off rivals or detect mates) and for finding food. The bear’s dental formula is 3/3.1/1.2-4/2-4.2/3. So how does the food get from one end of the bear to the other? This formula shows the number of top/bottom teeth on one side of the jaw, so the total number comes from adding the top and bottom numbers and multiplying by 2. , The mating system of bears has variously been described as a form of polygyny, promiscuity and serial monogamy.  Predatory behavior in bears is typically taught to the young by the mother.  In addition to the support of the pinniped–amphicynodontine clade, other morphological and some molecular evidence supports bears being the closet living relatives to pinnipeds. , The earliest members of Ursidae belong to the extinct subfamily Amphicynodontinae, including Parictis (late Eocene to early middle Miocene, 38–18 Mya) and the slightly younger Allocyon (early Oligocene, 34–30 Mya), both from North America. More than 12,000 bears are thought to be kept on farms in China, Vietnam, and South Korea for the production of bile. With a massive body structure, polar bears are larger than their counterparts i.e. Giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca; Spectacled bear, Tremarctos ornatus; Brown bear, Ursus arctos; Polar bear, Ursus maritimus; American black bear, Ursus americanus Bears' non-retractable claws are used for digging, climbing, tearing, and catching prey.  Bears normally do not wake during their hibernation, and can go the entire period without eating, drinking, urinating, or defecating. The limbs are much straighter than those of the big cats as there is no need for them to flex in the same way due to the differences in their gait. This is indicated, for example, as follows: Rangifer (32/34) (which means that they will have either 32 or 34 teeth in total), or Dasypus (28-32) which means that they will have between 28 and 32 teeth in total. Dr. Wang has a very conservative approach to dental x-rays. Note. They usually follow her on foot, but sloth bear cubs may ride on their mother's back. Sometimes a species will have a varying number of teeth. , Bears in captivity have for centuries been used for entertainment.  Large mammalian prey is typically killed by a bite to the head or neck, or (in the case of young) simply pinned down and mauled. The Discounted Present Value of Perpetuity Formula: References. In Switzerland, the male first name "Urs" is especially popular, while the name of the canton and city of Bern is derived from Bär, German for bear.  A fecal plug is formed in the colon, and is expelled when the bear wakes in the spring. A study of American black bears found seventeen species of endoparasite including the protozoan Sarcocystis, the parasitic worm Diphyllobothrium mansonoides, and the nematodes Dirofilaria immitis, Capillaria aerophila, Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. , Bears sometimes communicate with visual displays such as standing upright, which exaggerates the individual's size. They are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans. Copyright 2021 Western Wildlife Outreach All Rights Reserved.  There has been various morphological evidence linking amphicynodontines with pinnipeds, as both groups were semi-aquatic, otter-like mammals. The muskrat dental formula is: Incisors Canines Premolars Molars Top L-R 1-1 0-0 0-0 3-3 = 16 Total teeth Bottom L-R 1-1 0-0 0-0 3-3 An unusual condition exists in elephants whereby as the front molar wears down, it is replaced by another tooth from the rear in a process suggestive of a conveyor belt!  Where bears raid crops or attack livestock, they may come into conflict with humans.  These animals may be taken by a short rush and ambush, though hiding young may be stiffed out and pounced on. , Bear taxon names such as Arctoidea and Helarctos come from the ancient Greek ἄρκτος (arktos), meaning bear, as do the names "arctic" and "antarctic", via the name of the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern sky. More.  Amphicynodontinae under this classification were classified as stem-pinnipeds in the superfamily Phocoidea. We understand each age group has different dental needs, concerns and health changes over their lifetime. , There is evidence of prehistoric bear worship, though this is disputed by archaeologists. The preferred parts to eat are the brain and eggs. There were five bear-baiting gardens in Southwark, London at that time; archaeological remains of three of these have survived. P.O. Learn how your comment data is processed. They have been trained to dance, and were kept for baiting in Europe at least since the 16th century. 3 / 5 . They distribute their weight toward the hind feet, which makes them look lumbering when they walk. Berry seeds pass through unbroken and are able to geminate making bear’s great seed dispersers. Ovulation is induced by mating, which can last up to 30 minutes depending on the species. and others.  Considerable variation occurs in dental formula even within a given species. This formula shows the number of top/bottom teeth on one side of the jaw, so the total number comes from adding the top and bottom numbers and multiplying by 2. The dental formula can be determined by dividing the skull in the middle, then starting at the symmetrical midpoint and counting the teeth moving backwards along the jaw.  In poorer rural regions, attitudes may be more shaped by the dangers posed by bears, and the economic costs they cause to farmers and ranchers. Dominance between bears is asserted by making a frontal orientation, showing the canine teeth, muzzle twisting and neck stretching. Mailing Address: 3.1.2–220.127.116.11–4.3. Molar Bear Dentistry Inc. is a medical group practice located in Bedford, IN that specializes in Dentistry. The shaggy coat helps maintain body heat during winter hibernation and is shed in the spring leaving a shorter summer coat.  Bears are overwhelmingly solitary and are considered to be the most asocial of all the Carnivora. The dental formula for different species are as follows where I = incisors, C = canines, P = premolars and M = molars : Man (adult) I - 2/2 C - 1/1 P - 2/2 M - 3/3 = 16 x 2 = 32 . When treating a patient plagued with severe bad breath or gum disease, a dentist might recommend using a bleach and water mouth rinse. The Germanic name Bernard (including Bernhardt and similar forms) means "bear-brave", "bear-hardy", or "bold bear". This may indicate bears are still in the process of evolving from a mainly meat-eating diet to a predominantly herbivorous one. (Incisors-canines-premolars-molars). (1997) is to classify all the bear species into the superfamily Ursoidea, with Hemicyoninae and Agriotheriinae being classified in the family "Hemicyonidae". The image of the mother bear was prevalent throughout societies in North America and Eurasia, based on the female's devotion and protection of her cubs. , Brown and American black bears are generally diurnal, meaning that they are active for the most part during the day, though they may forage substantially by night.  Lifespan may also vary between species. , Bears are popular in children's stories, including Winnie the Pooh, Paddington Bear, Gentle Ben and "The Brown Bear of Norway".  Bears may attack humans in response to being startled, in defense of young or food, or even for predatory reasons. This is usually accompanied by clawing and biting the object.  Bears may dig their dens in hillsides or use caves, hollow logs and dense vegetation for shelter. , Bear taxon names such as Ursidae and Ursus come from Latin Ursus/Ursa, he-bear/she-bear. Her name is derived from the Celtic word for "bear", artos.  The polar bear is the most recently evolved species and descended from a population of brown bears that became isolated in northern latitudes by glaciation 400,000 years ago. Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.  Pandas are known to mark objects with urine and a waxy substance from their anal glands.  The Atlas bear, a subspecies of the brown bear was distributed in North Africa from Morocco to Libya, but it became extinct around the 1870s. , The peoples of eastern Asia use bears' body parts and secretions (notably their gallbladders and bile) as part of traditional Chinese medicine.  At the extremes are the almost entirely herbivorous giant panda and the mostly carnivorous polar bear. , Bears of northern regions, including the American black bear and the grizzly bear, hibernate in the winter.  The Old English name Beowulf is a kenning, "bee-wolf", for bear, in turn meaning a brave warrior. The milk of the female bear is rich in fat and antibodies and cubs may suckle for up to a year after they are born. , Bears are parasitized by eighty species of parasites, including single-celled protozoans and gastro-intestinal worms, and nematodes and flukes in their heart, liver, lungs and bloodstream.  Artio (Dea Artio in the Gallo-Roman religion) was a Celtic bear goddess. Bears use shelters, such as caves and logs, as their dens; most species occupy their dens during the winter for a long period of hibernation, up to 100 days. The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries, which are home to around 30% of the wild panda population, gained a UNESCO World Heritage Site designation in 2006. The cladogram is based on molecular phylogeny of six genes in Flynn, 2005. Species of Ursavus subsequently entered North America, together with Amphicynodon and Cephalogale, during the early Miocene (21–18 Mya). A few days ago, a sloth bear named Durga had developed dental issues and during X-ray examination it was discovered that her right upper and left lower canines were dead. In Cantonese cuisine, bear paws are considered a delicacy. Bear meat should be cooked thoroughly, as it can be infected with the parasite Trichinella spiralis. The whole dental formula for a lion is I=3/3 C=1/1 P=3/2 M=1/1. However, all bears feed on any food source that becomes seasonally available. We will not share your email with anyone. Of these, D. mansonoides and adult C. aerophila were causing pathological symptoms. The smallest species is the sun bear, which ranges 25–65 kg (55–145 lb) in weight and 100–140 cm (40–55 in) in length. Humans have 32 teeth. ... Apart from the embarrassment caused by bad dental hygiene, users also have to bear the high costs of dental treatment. The IUCN lists six bear species as vulnerable or endangered, and even least concern species, such as the brown bear, are at risk of extirpation in certain countries. These animals looked very different from today's bears, being small and raccoon-like in overall appearance, with diets perhaps more similar to that of a badger. 450-1100)-language text, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Images of a few members of the family Ursidae (clockwise from top right) consisting of the, Black Bear Conservation Coalition, for the North American black bear, Polar Bears International, for the polar bear, Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre, for the sun bear, Andean Bear Conservation Project, for the Andean bear, Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, for the giant panda, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 14:57.  Female bears give birth during the hibernation period, and are roused when doing so. Climo T. The 4 methods of valuing dental practices: Part 1. They are capable of bursts of speed but soon tire, and as a result mostly rely on ambush rather than the chase.  The prehistoric Finns, Siberian peoples and more recently Koreans considered the bear as the spirit of their forefathers. No living primate has retained more than two incisors in the upper jaw.  It is unclear whether late-Eocene ursids were also present in Eurasia, although faunal exchange across the Bering land bridge may have been possible during a major sea level low stand as early as the late Eocene (about 37 Mya) and continuing into the early Oligocene. , Gestation typically lasts 6–9 months, including delayed implantation, and litter size numbers up to four cubs.  The polar bear mainly preys on seals, stalking them from the ice or breaking into their dens. Despite their heavy build and awkward gait, they are adept runners, climbers, and swimmers. Box 147 Their meat is dark and stringy, like a tough cut of beef.  Relying as they do on strength rather than speed, bears have relatively short limbs with thick bones to support their bulk. The American black bear is restricted to North America, and the polar bear is restricted to the Arctic Sea. The polar bear is considered to be the largest extant species, with adult males weighing 350–700 kilograms (770–1,500 pounds) and measuring 2.4–3 metres (7 ft 10 in–9 ft 10 in) in total length. The coat consists of long guard hairs, which form a protective shaggy covering, and short dense hairs which form an insulating layer trapping air close to the skin. , The International Association for Bear Research & Management, also known as the International Bear Association, and the Bear Specialist Group of the Species Survival Commission, a part of the International Union for Conservation of Nature focus on the natural history, management, and conservation of bears. Top 7 Adaptations Of A Polar Bear Massive Size. Bears have 42 teeth, except for the sloth bear that only has 40. grizzly bears.As a result, the heat does not escape from the body of a polar bear and keeps it warm. Signup for our email newsletter informing you of upcoming events...  According to author Ralph Keyes, this is the oldest known euphemism. 4 . Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. These are found on both sides of the Bering land bridge, which was lost to the sea some 11,000 years ago. Is it suitable for children? Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. The teeth start the breakdown process of the food the bear eats. , The sloth bear, though not as specialized as polar bears and the panda, has lost several front teeth usually seen in bears, and developed a long, suctioning tongue to feed on the ants, termites, and other burrowing insects they favour. The strong forelimbs are used to catch prey, to excavate dens, to dig out burrowing animals, to turn over rocks and logs to locate prey, and to club large creatures. Humans have 32 teeth. The claws on the front feet are larger than those on the back and may be a hindrance when climbing trees; black bears are the most arboreal of the bears, and have the shortest claws. They have a thick layer of blubber for extra insulation, and the soles of their feet have a dense pad of fur.  Brown bears, with their powerful digging abilities, commonly eat roots. These are just two reasons bears are very important to the health of the environment. Its dental formula is peculiar by reason chiefly of the reduction of the lower incisors. The molar teeth of this creature, in accordance with its diet, have lost the sharp points of the Mustelidae in general; … Courtship may be brief, although in some Asian species, courting pairs may engage in wrestling, hugging, mock fighting and vocalizing. These large canines describe the exclusive meat-eating ability of a bear more than any other teeth. The canine teeth are large but mostly used for display, and the molar teeth flat and crushing. The formula displays the upper jaw numbers over the lower jaw numbers, e.g. They use their teeth to hold, tear and grind food before swallowing it.  The panda's diet is over 99% bamboo, of 30 different species. Special micro-particles of diamond help to polish teeth back to their natural whiteness.  Smaller bears climb trees to obtain mast (edible reproductive parts, such as acorns).  The sloth bear is a modern survivor of one of the earliest lineages to diverge during this radiation event (5.3 Mya); it took on its peculiar morphology, related to its diet of termites and ants, no later than by the early Pleistocene. , The brown bear and both species of black bears sometimes take large ungulates, such as deer and bovids, mostly the young and weak. Public perception of bears is often positive, as people identify with bears due to their omnivorous diets, their ability to stand on two legs, and their symbolic importance. Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its gut. , In some species, offspring may become independent around the next spring, through some may stay until the female successfully mates again. Home. The relationships of the other species are not very well resolved, though the polar bear and the brown bear form a close grouping. Its strong jaws are adapted for crushing the tough stems of these plants, though they prefer to eat the more nutritious leaves. Wolverine Dental Formula: Incisor 3/3, canine 1/1, premolar 4/4, molar 1/2 for a total of 38 teeth. , Several bear species are dangerous to humans, especially in areas where they have become used to people; elsewhere, they generally avoid humans. , Unlike most other land carnivorans, bears are plantigrade. photo credit: Dennis Ryan, person belonging to the hat was not eaten dental formula a formula derived from numbering the incisors, canines, premolars and molars on one side of the mouth. This is one of the structural features that has made the wolverine successful as a predator/scavenger, … 24/7 SUPPORT ONLINE. Hemicyoninae A brown bear can eat 41 kg (90 lb) of food and gain 2–3 kg (4–7 lb) of fat a day prior to entering its den. , The subfamily Ursinae experienced a dramatic proliferation of taxa about 5.3–4.5 Mya, coincident with major environmental changes; the first members of the genus Ursus appeared around this time. Unlike most other members of the Carnivora, bears have relatively undeveloped carnassial teeth, and their teeth are adapted for a diet that includes a significant amount of vegetable matter.  The IUCN lists six bear species as vulnerable; even the two least concern species, the brown bear and the American black bear, are at risk of extirpation in certain areas. Specialty organizations for each of the eight species of bears worldwide include: This article is about the carnivoran mammals. Bears have 42 teeth, except for the sloth bear that only has 40. The panda, in particular, spends 12–15 hours a day feeding. Dog. Frequently asked questions. , Bears have small rounded ears so as to minimize heat loss, but neither their hearing or sight are particularly acute. , The constellations of Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, the great and little bears, are named for their supposed resemblance to bears, from the time of Ptolemy. Required fields are marked *.  Individuals may approach each other by stiff-legged walking with the head lowered. A subordinate may respond with a lateral orientation, by turning away and dropping the head and by sitting or lying down. the dental formula of the permanent teeth in humans is: Yes, our formula is safe to use on existing dental work including, composite bonding, veneers, crown and bridge work. Pandas are unique in having a bony extension on the wrist of the front feet which acts as a thumb, and is used for gripping bamboo shoots as the animals feed. Contact Us. , The New World short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) differentiated from Ursinae following a dispersal event into North America during the mid-Miocene (about 13 Mya). The most important are humans, and as they started cultivating crops, they increasingly came in conflict with the bears that raided them. This form is conventionally said to be related to a Proto-Indo-European word for "brown", so that "bear" would mean "the brown one".  Their earliest fossil representative is Plionarctos in North America (c. 10–2 Ma). Mostly the number of teeth is fixed in each mammalian species. Specializing in general dentistry, Bear Family Dentistry has been serving the local Central Louisiana area for over 30 years. One is all species of bears are classified in seven subfamilies as adopted here and related articles: Amphicynodontinae, Hemicyoninae, Ursavinae, Agriotheriinae, Ailuropodinae, Tremarctinae, and Ursinae. 3 = 44 teeth (the numbers being the numbers respectively of pairs of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars in the upper and lower jaws).  It is possible that bear worship existed in early Chinese and Ainu cultures.  Larger species tend to show increased levels of sexual dimorphism in comparison to smaller species. The three subspecies of brown bear (Ursus arctos) - the grizzly bear, the Kodiak bear and the Eurasian bear - live in a variety of habitats including forests, shrubby subalpine to open tundra regions, desert to semi-desert. (2007) The giant panda, followed by the spectacled bear are clearly the oldest species.  Sloth bears lack lower central incisors and use their protusible lips for sucking up the termites on which they feed. They eat anything from leaves, roots, and berries to insects, carrion, fresh meat, and fish, and have digestive systems and teeth adapted to such a diet.  They invaded South America (≈2.5 or 1.2 Ma) following formation of the Isthmus of Panama. , Bears are generally bulky and robust animals with short tails. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii has been found in polar bears, and the nematode Trichinella nativa can cause a serious infection and decline in older polar bears. It is written as an expression of the number of each type of tooth in one side of the upper jaw over the number of teeth in one side of the lower jaw.  Fish are an important source of food for some species, and brown bears in particular gather in large numbers at salmon runs. Amphicynodontinae I=3/3, C=1/1, P=3/3,M=1/2 total teeth =42 i. The Russian Bear has been a common national personification for Russia from the 16th century onward. Researcher Rescued from Tree: Wolves Keep Watch Below, but Show No Signs of Aggression, Safety Advice for Living and Recreating in Cougar Country, Ryan Zinke is Right: Restore Grizzly Bears to the North Cascades. Nuclear chromosome analysis show that the karyotype of the six ursine bears is nearly identical, with each having 74 chromosomes (see Ursid hybrid), whereas the giant panda has 42 chromosomes and the spectacled bear 52.  Around the world, many children—and some adults—have teddy bears, stuffed toys in the form of bears, named after the American statesman Theodore Roosevelt when in 1902 he had refused to shoot an American black bear tied to a tree. The letters correspond to the type of teeth (I = Incisor, C = Canine, P = Premolar, M = Molar). 1 . The shoulder blades and the pelvis are correspondingly massive.  Ursa Major has been associated with a bear for as much as 13,000 years since Paleolithic times, in the widespread Cosmic Hunt myths. ", "The Great Bear Constellation Ursa Major", "Notes on Early Oligocene Ursids (Carnivora, Mammalia) from Saint Jacques, Nei Mongol, China", 10.1206/0003-0090(2003)279<0116:C>2.0.CO;2, "The early Miocene littoral ursoid carnivoran, "Basicranial evidence for ursid affinity of the oldest pinnipeds", "Use of spectral analysis to test hypotheses on the origin of pinnipeds", 10.1206/0003-0082(2005)483[0001:AAAACF]2.0.CO;2, "Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset", "Rapid radiation events in the family Ursidae indicated by likelihood phylogenetic estimation from multiple fragments of mtDNA", "Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary", "The fossil record of South American short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae)", "Dispersals of Neogene Carnivorans between Asia and North America", 10.1206/0003-0090(2003)279<0018:C>2.0.CO;2, "Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in Polar Bears", "Molecular phylogeny of the Carnivora (Mammalia): Assessing the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships", "Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation", 10.1644/1545-1410(2002)696<0001:HM>2.0.CO;2, 10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[895:SDOPB]2.0.CO;2, "Occurrence and structure of epipharyngeal pouches in bears (Ursidae)", "Food Habits of Grizzly Bears and Black Bears in the Yellowstone Ecosystem", "The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome", "Nocturnal and diurnal foraging behaviour of brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) on a salmon stream in coastal British Columbia", "Social behavior of the Alaska brown bear", "Diets of Asiatic black bears in Taiwan, with Methodological and Geographical Comparisons", "Foraging Behavior of North American Bears", 10.2192/1537-6176(2007)18[46:IOMPOB]2.0.CO;2, "Progress in the utilization of urea-ammonia treated crop residues: biological and socio-economic aspects of animal production and application of the technology on small farms", "Seasonal and Habitat-Related Diets of Sloth Bears in Nepal", "What do bears like to eat in a beehive?